Ask OU Kosher: April 2011, Passover Column

29 Mar 2011

“ Kitniyos Q’s ”

By Rabbi David Polsky
OU Kosher Consumer Hotline

Q: What are kitniyos?

A: Kitniyos are grains and legumes. Since the middle ages, Jews of Ashkenazic descent have accepted upon themselves to abstain from these foods during Passover. The custom developed because: 1) these items are similar to, and can be confused with chametz, and 2) they may be mixed with other grains, since they are often grown and/or processed near chametz.

Q: If I am an Ashkenazic Jew, does that mean that I must sell or remove kitniyos from my home before Passover?

A: The prohibitions of ownership or benefit according to the Torah are with derivatives of the five grains (wheat, barley, oats, spelt, and rye) that can become chametz. There is no custom to remove kitniyos from one’s home. In fact, if one has a pet, one may feed it kitniyos, such as millet. However, if there is likelihood that a kitniyos based product may contain chametz, it is advisable to sell it.

Q: What is included in the custom?

A: Kitniyos generally refers to any of the following: 1) Beans, 2) Buckwheat, 3) Caraway, 4) Cardamom, 5) Corn, 6) Fennel, 7) Fenugreek, 8) Lentils, 9) Millet, 10) Mustard, 11) Peas, 12) Poppy Seeds, 13) Rapeseed, 14) Rice, 15) Sesame Seeds, 16) Soybeans, and 17) Sunflower Seeds. Many Ashkenazic Jews in America also treat Peanuts as kitniyos.

Q: My child has a limited diet. He mostly eats formula that is largely based on corn and soy. What should he do during Passover?

A: Because refraining from kitniyos is merely a custom, children, the elderly, and others with limited diets are allowed to consume kitniyos as needed. However, one should confirm that the kitniyos item does not contain any chametz. The OU Passover website ( lists OU certified formulas and dietary supplements that have been determined to contain kitniyos only. We suggest browsing the site to see which formulas are acceptable. If you do not see an item listed, please do not hesitate to call the Kosher Consumer Hotline (1-212-613-8241) or e-mail the Webbe Rebbe (

When using kitniyos products for such reasons, it is necessary to use separate utensils and wash them in the bathroom sink or another area separate from one’s Passover food and utensils.

Q: I have heard that aspartame is derived from corn. How can so many Passover products use it?

A: There is a major rabbinical discussion whether prohibited items that undergo a significant structural and chemical change lose their prohibited status. Although it is accepted to be stringent in cases when the original products are biblically or rabbinically prohibited, many kashrut organizations are lenient with kitniyos, which is only a custom. However, this only applies to corn or other kitniyos derivatives that undergo major changes with regards to both their taste and chemical structures.