Thanks to Phil Chernofsky of the OU/NCSY Israel Center for Including
This Material in His Remarkable Torah
Tidbits, based on the book Day by Day in Jewish History by Rabbi
Abraham P. Bloch z''l
This Day in Jewish
- 100 47 Jews were killed by Arabs in Jaffa,
- Jews from Eretz Yisrael bound for Malta died
when their ship was sunk by a German plane, 1943.
- Goebbels, Nazi minister of propaganda,
committed suicide, 1945.
- Massacre of the Jewish community of Bisenz,
- Pope calls upon all Christian princes to send
back to Spain the Jews who had fled from the Inquisition, 1481.
- Jews of Speyer were massacred in the first
- Council of Hanover ordered the severance of
all business connections between Jews and Christians, 1588.
- Many Jews killed in anti-Jewish riots in
- Tel Aviv was sacked by Arabs, 1917.
- Djemal Pasha
announced that it was the intention of the Turkish government to purge Eretz
Yisrael of its Jewish population.
- Tel Aviv was sacked by the Arabs on the
anniversary of the official adoption of the name "Tel Aviv".
- Jewish residents of Speyer, Germany, were
- The council of Hanover ordered the severance
of all business connections between Jews and Christians, 1588.
- Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Kiev, Russia,
1881. The Russian pogroms of 1881 led to the spread of Zionist ideas in
Eastern Europe and the formation, in 1882, of Hovevei Zion, the first
organized modern Zionist movement in the world.
- Israeli postal service was established, 1948.
- The Nuremberg anti-Jewish laws went into
effect in Hungary, 1939.
- Right of citizenship was denied to Jews of the
canton of Aargau, Switzerland, 1809. Emancipation was delayed until 1879.
- Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato (RAMCHA"L),
kabbalist, poet, author of Mesilat Yesharim, died, 1747.
- 1,200 Jews of Toledo, Spain were killed, 1355.
- Jews of Corfu were granted the right to
practice law, 1680.
- Empress Catherine I of Russia expelled all
Jews from the Ukraine, 1727.
- A letter of Empress Catherine II of Russia
opened the way for limited settlement of Jews in Riga, 1764.
- The Judenordnung provided for the abolition of
discriminatory laws enacted against the Jews of Galicia, Austria, 1789.
- Construction began on the first 100 houses to
be built in Ahuzat Bayit (to be known later as Tel Aviv), 1909.
- Three Jews were killed and many wounded in
Arab attacks on Petah Tikva, 1921.
- The Jewish autonomous region in Birobidzhan
was founded by Russia, 1934.
- The Nazi, decreed the execution of all
pregnant Jewish women in the ghetto of Kovno, 1942.
- The Mauthausen concentration camp was
liberated, 1945. The camp had housed 225,000 inmates in the course of its
existence. Of this total, 200,000 were exterminated.
- The first printed edition of Mishnayot with
Maimonides' commentary was published in Naples, 1492.
- Crusaders dragged Rabbenu Jacob b. Meir Tam
from his home in Ramerupt, France, and left him critically wounded in a
- Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Shpola and
Ananyev, Russia, 1881.
- The Rothschild-Hadassah University Hospital
and Medical Center was opened on Mt. Scopus, 1939.
- German forces marched into Holland, 1940. The
diary of Anne Frank, the young Dutch Jewish girl, attracted universal
attention to the suffering of Jews in Nazi-occupied territories. Anne Frank
died in the Belsen concentration camp. The British liberated Belsen on the
fifth anniversary of the Nazi invasion of Holland.
- Tzfat was taken by the Hagana, 1948.
- Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Craiova,
- Napoleon retreated from Acco, giving up his
dream of conquering the Near East, 1799.
- Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Wasilkow and
Konotop, Russia, 1881.
- A Church synod, meeting in Vienna, ordered
distinctive garb for Jews, 1267.
- All Jews were ordered expelled from Berne,
Switzerland, 1427. Expulsions of Jewish communities continued unabated
throughout the 15th century: Treves, 1419; duchy of Austria, 1421; Cologne,
1424; Zurich, 1436; archbishopric of Hildesheim, 1457; Schaffhausen, 1472;
Mayence, 1473; Warsaw, 1483; Geneva, 1490; Thurgau, 1491; Spain, Sicily,
Sardinia, Lithuania, 1492; Mecklenburg and Arles, 1493; Portugal, 1497;
Nuremberg 1499; Provence, 1500.
- Jews of England were thrown into prison on
charges of coining, 1278.
- The Jewish agricultural settlement, Alliance,
was founded in New Jersey, 1882.
- Theresienstadt was liberated, 1945.
- Tel Aviv became the first all-Jewish
- Israel admitted as the 59th member of the
U.N., 1949, this, on the anniversary of Turkey's declaration, 1917, of its
intention to free Eretz Yisrael of the entire Jewish population.
- Adolf Eichmann, charged with the
implementation of the "final solution", was captured in Buenos
Aires, Argentina, 1960. Eichmann was in charge of all transportation
required for the shipment of Jews to the extermination camps. The height of
his career was reached in Hungary in 1944, when he managed to transport
400,000 Jews to the gas chambers in less than five weeks.
- The Pope condemned the Talmud, 1415.
- A great number of Jews of Styria, Austria,
were burned and the balance were expelled from the country, 1421.
- The first Aliya to the Negev began with the
establishment of Kibbutz Gevulot, 1943. The first three settlements, Gevulot,
Revivim, and Bet Eshel, were experimentally established in 1943 to determine
the feasibility of permanent settlements in the Negev. As a result of the
information gathered in the experimental stage, eleven new settlements were
established in the Negev in 1946, and an additional seven in 1947. These
settlements served also as strongpoints to defend the Yishuv from attack by
an enemy advancing from the south. The Egyptian army suffered its first
defeat at Nirim, one of the settlements established in 1946, on the
anniversary of the first Aliya to the Negev.
- Jews of Sicily were forbidden to display any
funeral decorations in public, 1393.
- The brothers Hayyim and Joshua Reizes of
Lemberg, famous for their piety and scholarship, were tortured and executed
on charges of influencing the apostate Jan Filipowicz to return to Judaism,
- The Pope issued a bull against blood-ritual
- Bet-Shean was captured by the Hagana, 1948.
- Germany established diplomatic relations with
Israel, 1965. (This, 20 years after its unconditional surrender, at the end
of World War II, and 17 years after the establishment of the State of
- The first degrees of Doctor of Medicine were
awarded to 62 graduates of the Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical School,
- Yarhzeit of Rabbi Israel Ashkenazi of Shklov,
leader of the Aliya of the followers of the Gaon of Vilna to Eretz Yisrael,
1839. The dynamic force of early Hasidism clashed head-on with the dynamic
force of Ashkenazic traditionalism generated by the GR"A. The momentum
of both movements created the two major aliyot of the pre-Zionist times.
Rabbi Israel of Shklov arrived in Eretz Yisrael in 1808. In 1815 he moved to
Jerusalem, where he founded the modern Ashkenazic community. The location of
his grave was unknown for a long time. It was discovered in 1964, 125 years
after his death, in Tiberias.
- The Nazis interned 3,600 naturalized Jews of
Russian origin, 1941.
- Jews of Venice were denied the right to
practice law, 1637.
- The Warsaw ghetto was reduced to ashes and the
uprising came to an end after an active resistance of four weeks, 1943.
- Anti-Jewish riots in Odessa, Russia, 1881.
- An English Jew, saved the life of King George
- A community of Jewish slaves, captured over a
period of two centuries and held for ransom by the Knights of St. John on
the isalnd of Malta, was officially dissolved, 1800
- Sedeh Boker was founded on an ancient Nabatean
site never before inhabited by Jews, 1952.
- Nazi deportation of Jews from greater Hungary
- Chaim Weizmann was elected first president of
the State of Israel, 1948.
- The Egyptian army suffered its first defeat at
Nirim, in the Negev, 1948. The Egyptians entered Gaza, 1948.
- The famous Tolmatsky Synagogue of Warsaw was
dynamited by order of General Jurgen Stroop, 1943. It marked the last German
"major operation" in the liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto
- Yahrzeit of Saadiah Gaon, 942. The outstanding
scholar of his age. He was a recognized authority on the Talmud, and a
profound student of philosophy and philology.
- Marranos of Segovia, Spain were massacred,
- Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Warsaw, 1790.
- Russia recognized Israel, 1948.
- Israeli forces captured Acre, Nebi Yusha, and
Tel el-Kadi, 1948.
- The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School
was opened in New Jerusalem, 1959.
- The White Paper of the McDonald government of
Britain, which reversed the policy of the Balfour Declaration, was
published, 1939. It nullified, in effect, the aims and legal commitment of
the Balfour Declaration.
- Poland, Czechoslovakia, Uruguay, and Nicaragua
recognized Israel, 1948.
- The Arab Legion captured the police fort on
Mt. Scopus, 1948, and Saudi Arabia joined the other Arab armies in their
invasion of Israel, 1948.
- Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Algeria, 1897.
- Jew of Worms were massacred by Crusaders,
- Over 500 Jews were forcibly baptized in
Clermont-Ferrand, France, 576.
- Acco was captured by Muslims bringing to an
end the Christian Kingdom of Eretz Yisrael. The persecution of medieval
Jewry in England dates from the 12th century, with the launching of the
Crusades. The persecutions led to the expulsion of the Jewish community in
1290. The vestiges of the Crusaders' Kingdom in Eretz Yisrael came to an end
- The provisional government council of Israel
proclaimed a state of emergency, 1948.
- Berlin was declared "Judenrein",
- The aliyah of Iraqi Jews began, 1950. The
first deportation of Eretz Yisrael Jews to Babylonia took place in 597 B.C.E.
The bulk of Eretz Yisrael Jewry followed them to Babylonia 11 years later,
in 568 B.C.E. The first return of some Babylonian Jews to Eretz Yisrael took
place in 539 B.C.E. The majority, however, remained in Babylonia, where they
were destined eventually to make a major contribution to Judaism through the
creation of the Babylonian Talmud and the Geonic responsa. It was not until
1951, 2,548 years after the arrival of the first Jewish deportees in
Babylonia, that this ancient Jewish community began its own liquidation
through an aliya to Israel.
- Metula founded, 1896.
- The Israeli air force went in to action for
the first time in the War of Independence, 1948.
- The Syrian army, which had advanced to Deganya,
was halted and repulsed, 1948. This was Israel's first significant victory.
It came on the anniversary of the end of the Warsaw ghetto uprising.
- Frederick William of Prussia permitted 50
Jewish families who had been expelled from Vienna to settle in his dominion,
- Portuguese Marranos were granted permission to
settle in Brazil, 1577.
- An edict admitting Jews into Berlin, 1671.
- Egypt blocked the Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli
- Karl Frank, nazi protector of Bohemia-Moravia,
was executed in Prague, 1946.
- Rumanian government granted citizenship to all
native-born Jews, 1919.
- Hundreds of Jew were burned alive in Brussels,
the remainder were banished from the country, 1370.
- The only advance of the Arab Legion beyond the
Old City walls into "Jewish Jerusalem" was halted in front of
Notre Dame, 1948. The commander of the Arab Legion, Sir John Bagot Glubb (Glubb
Pasha), considered that battle to be the worst defeat suffered by the legion
throughout the war.
- King Edward I of England ordered the cessation
of persecution of Jews of Bordeaux, France.
- Jews of Austria were imprisoned and expelled
from the country, 1420.
- Gestapo Chief Heinrich Himmler committed
- Emperor Maximilian of Germany rescinded a
previously issued order to burn all Hebrew books, 1510.
- South Africa recognized Israel, 1948.
- The Egyptian army captured Yad Mordecai, 1945.
- Simhah b. Ha-Kohen of Worms was killed by
Crusaders in a church for stabbing the bishop's nephew while pretending to
submit to compulsory baptism, 1096.
- Massacre of the Jews of Worms who took refuge
in the castle during the First Crusade, 1096.
- Chmielnicki's pogroms, which resulted in the
massacre of more than 300,000 Jews, broke out, 1648
- Minsk, Russia, recognized Yiddish as a second
official language, 1917.
- Jews of Warsaw and environs, expelled,
- A pogrom broke out in Minsk, Russia, 1905.
- The Zion Mule Corps was disbanded, 1916.
- The Russian government decreed the
establishment of a rabbinical committee to be attached to the Ministry of
the Interior. This was part of the government's policy which aimed at the
compulsory assimilation of Russian Jewry.
- Shalom Schwarzbard assassinated Ukranian S.V.
Petlura, whose followers were responsible for 493 pogroms in which 50,000
Jews lost their lives.
- 34 Jewish men and 17 Jewish women were burned
at the stake in Blois, France in the first ritual-murder charge on the
European continent, 1171.
- The Israel Defense Army (Zahal) was
- The Arabs blew up the Hurva Synagogue, 1948.
- Jewish community of the Old City surrendered
to Jordan's Arab Legion, 1948.
- The first Jewish day school in America, 1808.
- Crusaders massacred the Jews of Mayence, 1096.
- The Pope suspended the Portuguese Inquisition
due to its severe treatment of Marranos, 1679.
- 30 Jews of Posing, Hungary, charged with
blood-ritual, were burned, 1529.
- Israeli forces captured the Arab village of
Zar'in on Mt. Gilboa, 1948.
- Jews of Frankfort on the Main, Germany, were
permitted for the first time to appear in public at the coronation of Joseph
- The first Jewish sermon preached and published
in America ws delivered by Rabbi Hayyim Isaac Carigal in the Newport
- 60 Jews were murdered in Breslau, Silesia in
riots which followed a disastrous fire which had destroyed part of the city,
1349. (our fault, of course)
- Agudat Yisrael was founded in Poland, 1912.
- Pogroms in Brisk, Lithuania, 1905.
- The Israeli army crossed into Lebanon, and
scattered the Arab forces on the border, 1948.
- Representative Louis T. McFadden (PA)
delivered a Nazi-type attack on Jews, 1933. It was the first anti-Semitic
speech in Congress.
- Jews of Bacharach, Germany, were massacred by
the Crusaders, 1096.
- A disengagement agreement was reached between
Israel and Syria, 1974.
- Sultan Mohammed II, the conqueror of
Constantinople, granted equal rights to Jews and other non-Muslim subjects
of the Ottoman Empire, 1453.
- Crusaders reached Cologne and found the gate
to the city closed by order of the bishop. Of all the Jewish communities in
the path of the Crusaders, Cologne's Jews were the only ones to escape total
- Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Emden, Prussia,
- The Jewish defender of Jerusalem surrendered
the first wall of the city to the Romans, 70 C.E.
- Adolf Eichmann, head of the Jewish department
of the Gestapo, the first Nazi to be condemned by the Jewish state, was
- Jews barred from living in Riga and Livonia,
- Jewish community of Khonia, Crete, dating from
Roman times, came to an end when the ship Danai, into which all the Jews had
been herded, was towed out to sea and sunk, 1944.
This Day in Jewish