Cutting a pill on Shabbos, using a match as a toothpick. Breaking apart pieces of aromatic wood on Shabbos so they emit their scent for a sick person. Using aromatic oil and mouthwash on Shabbos. Cutting items on Shabbos for a constructive purpose is prohibited. Does the melacha of cutting apply to food?
An egg laid on Shabbos can’t be eaten or moved on Shabbos on account of a Yom Tov that falls on Friday. An egg found first thing Shabbos morning when Sunday is Yom Tov. An Israeli picking aravot for a ben chutz la’aretz on the second day of Sukkot.
The sequence of crushing, pounding, and pulverizing: If you did the first step before Shabbos you can do the other two steps. Smoothing (ממחק) the surface of food on Shabbos. Peeling garlic and onions on Shabbos. Peeling eggs or removing skin from chicken on Shabbos. Peeling an apple and eating watermelon on Shabbos.
Adding dressing or liquid to a salad with small pieces. Adding wine to charoset on Shabbos. Taking medicine on Shabbos was prohibited by chazal since it can lead to grinding. Medication taken on a daily basis.
Removing a honeycomb that is still attached to a beehive is תולש. Only the honey on the outside of the honeycomb can be used. Removing the honey inside is מפרק. Kneading parched flour on Shabbos (which is not given to kneading)
Cutting vegetables very finely on Shabbos is considered grinding and is only permissible for immediate use (similar to borer). It has to be done “by hand” (i.e. not a utensil made for grinding). Chopping wood. Removing honeycombs on Shabbos is prohibited.
Breaking apart blocks of salt with a pestle is prohibited, even for immediate use. Cutting meat very finely with a knife is permissible (אין טחינה אלא בגידולי קרקע). Grinding/grating cheese with a grater on Shabbos is prohibited. Cutting vegetables very finely is prohibited.
Salting meat on Shabbos is prohibited if not for immediate use (e.g. to preserve it). Salting a large quantity of beans/lentils is prohibited. Grind pepper is only permitted with a double shinui (e.g. with a knife on a plate).