864. Shacharis on Tisha b’Av

124:2 One should make himself uncomfortable in bed. For example, if he usually sleeps with two pillows, he should only use one on Tisha b’Av. Some have the practice to sleep on the ground and to put a stone under their heads as a reminder of our forefather Yaakov. Genesis 28:11 tells us, “He took from the stones of the place…” and he subsequently had a vision of the destruction of the Temple and said, “How awesome is this place” (ibid., 38:27). One should do what one can in this area. (Making oneself uncomfortable in bed does not apply to pregnant women or to weak and sickly people – Mishnah Brurah 555:7.)

124:3 We do not put tefillin on during shacharis on Tisha b’Av because tefillin are called p’eir (glory). We likewise do not wear a tallis because of the Aramaic reading of Eicha 2:17, “He has torn His regal garment.” We do wear tzitzis (under one’s clothes – OC 555:1) but we do not recite the bracha. (Some authorities do require one to recite the bracha – MB 555:2.) One should arrive at shul a little early. The light for the shaliach tzibbur is not lit. Davening is recited slowly and mournfully. Psalm 100 (Mizmor l’Sodah) is recited. During the repetition of Shemoneh Esrei, the shaliach tzibbur recites Aneinu (“answer us”) in between the brachos of “Goeil” and “Rofeh,” as is the case on every public fast day. Birkas Kohanim (the “priestly blessing”) is not recited. After Shemoneh Esrei, the shaliach tzibbur recites half-kaddish. Neither Tachanun nor (k)Eil Erech Apayim (“G-d, slow to anger) is recited because Tisha b’Av is called a “moed” (see above, 123:3). A Torah scroll is taken out, from which we read starting from Deuteronomy 4:25. Three men are called to the Torah and it is appropriate that one who is called up should quietly say “Baruch Dayan Ha’Emes” (“Blessed is the True Judge”) before reciting the bracha over the Torah.

After reading the Torah, half-kaddish is recited, followed by the haftarah. The haftarah begins from Jeremiah 8:13, “I will utterly consume them,” and is chanted to the tune of Eicha. We return the Torah and sit on the ground to recite the kinos. We should continue to do so until it is almost midday. Afterwards, we say Ashrei but we do not say Lamnatzeiach (Psalm 20). We do say U’va l’Tziyon, omitting the verse “va’ani zos brisi” (“As for Me, this is My covenant…”) because it would seem as if we are affirming a covenant over the kinos. Also, it would be unseemly to say “As for Me, this is My covenant…” because it contains the words “shall not depart from your mouth” and we are forbidden to study Torah on Tisha b’Av. We do say this verse in a mourner’s house during the rest of the year because, even though the mourner may not study Torah, those who have come to console him are not so forbidden. We say v’Atah Kadosh, full kaddish without Tiskabeil, Aleinu, and mourner’s kaddish. We do not recite shir hayichud (the song of unity) or the Psalm of the day, nor Pitom HaKetores. It is appropriate to read Eicha to oneself after shul.