This shiur provided courtesy of The Tanach Study Center
In memory of Rabbi Abraham Leibtag
How many times must God repeat the SAME promise to Avraham Avinu? In Parshat Lech Lecha alone, God tells Avraham FOUR times that his offspring (“zera”) will become a nation in a special land (“aretz”)! Would not have one divine promise been sufficient?
In the following shiur, we attempt to explain the reason for each of these promises and their relation to the events that transpire in the interim.
To clarify our opening question, the following table charts the progression of events in Parshat Lech Lecha by providing a short title for each of its seven ‘parshiot’, while noting in brackets where that ‘parshia’ includes a “hitgalut” [revelation] to Avraham in regard to the future of his offspring.
|12:1-9||Avraham’s “aliyah” to Eretz Canaan [*12:1-3,7]|
|12:10-13:18||Lot leaving Avraham [*13:14-17]|
|14:1-24||Avraham’s victory in the war between the kings|
|15:1-20||Brit Bein haBetarim [*15:13-19]|
|16:1-16||The birth of Yishmael|
As you review this chart, read those pesukim (quoted in the brackets) – noting how often God promises Avraham Avinu that his “zera” (offspring) will inherit the “aretz” (land). In our shiur, we attempt to explain how and why each “hitgalut” is unique, and how it relates to the events that transpire in Parshat Lech Lecha.
The First Hitgalut – Becoming God’s Nation
The opening “hitgalut” is the simplest to understand, for in this initial encounter, God must first explain to Avraham the primary purpose for why he has been chosen:
“I will make you a GREAT NATION… and through you all the Nations of the world will be blessed…” (see 12:1-3)
As we explained in earlier shiurim, God initiates this special relationship with Avraham Avinu to become the ‘forefather’ of a ‘model nation’ that will direct mankind toward a more Theo-centric existence.
This backdrop explains God’s next “hitgalut” to Avraham (in that very same ‘parshia’) upon his arrival in that land:
“To your ZERA [offspring] I shall give this ARETZ [land]” (see 12:7)
To develop from an ‘individual’ into a ‘nation’, it will be necessary for:
- Avraham’s family will need to multiply –
hence the blessing of “ZERA”;
- A territory is necessary to establish this nation –
hence the promise of “ARETZ”.
Pay careful attention to these two key words: “zera” & “aretz”, for they will be repeated quite often in Sefer Breishit, especially when God speaks to the forefathers in regard to the future of their offspring.
Theoretically speaking, these two promises could have sufficed. After all, once Avraham had arrived in the land, he simply needs to give birth to many children, settle the land, and establish this special nation. And if Chumash was a ‘fairy tale’, that may have been a most likely scenario. However, in Chumash, this “bechira” [choosing] process – to become God’s special nation – will unfold instead in a rather complex manner. To appreciate that process, we must now consider the thematic significance of each additional “hitgalut” to Avraham Avinu.
The First ‘Split’
The next ‘parshia’ (12:9-13:18) describes Avraham’s journey to Egypt and upon his return – his quarrel with Lot. Let’s examine the next “hitgalut” which takes place immediately after Lot left Avraham:
“And God spoke to Avram after Lot had left him: Lift up your eyes from this place and see… for this entire ARETZ that you see I am giving to you and your ZERA forever…” (see 13:14-18)
This promise, although a bit more ‘poetic’ than the first, appears to be more or less a repeat of God’s original promise of “zera v’aretz”. To understand its purpose, we must consider what transpired in those events.
Review 12:10 thru 13:18, noting how this unit discusses two totally different stories, even though they are both included in the same ‘parshia’:
- Avraham’s journey to Egypt and his subsequent return (12:10-13:4)
- The quarrel between Lot and Avraham (13:5-18)
Indeed, there is loose connection between these two stories, as it was their wealth (which they accumulated during their journey to Egypt /see 12:16-20) that sparked their quarrel (see 13:5-9). Nevertheless, it would have been more logical for each of these stories to form their own ‘parshia’, as reflected in the chapter division.
However, the fact that the Torah records both of these stories in the same ‘parshia’ – suggests that a deeper thematic connection may exist between these two stories.
Let’s explore that possibility.
Like Nephew Like Son
Note once again the opening phrase (in 13:14) which introduces God’s second promise:
“And God spoke to Avram after Lot had left him…“
This short introduction certainly points to a direct connection between Lot’s departure and the need for this additional promise.
One could suggest that God’s promise comes to ‘cheer up’ Avraham Avinu after this tragic separation from his nephew Lot, whom he treated as his own son. Let’s explain why.
Recall that at this time, Avraham has no children of his own, while his nephew Lot has no father. For this reason, it seems as though Avraham had practically ‘adopted’ Lot, treating him like his own son. In fact, from the moment we meet Avraham in Parshat Noach, Lot faithfully follows Avraham everywhere. [See 11:27-31, 12:4-5, and 13:1-2,5!
[Recall as well that Haran (Avraham’s brother) left three children: Lot, Milka, and Yiskah / see 11:27-29. Nachor (Avraham’s other brother) took care of Milka – by marrying her, while Avraham took care of Lot, by treating him like a son. This also explains why Chazal identify Sarah as Yiskah (see 20:12 & Rashi on 11:29).]
As he had no children of his own, Avraham may have understood that God’s promise of “zera” would be fulfilled through Lot! [See Radak 13:14!] Furthermore, even if God would one-day bless him with his own son, Avraham could still have hoped to include Lot as an integral member of his ‘chosen’ family.
Therefore, Lot’s decision to leave (see 13:9-13) could be considered as a personal tragedy for Avraham, and hence the necessity for God to reassure him that His promise of “zera” will still be fulfilled.
With this in mind, let’s consider a deeper connection between these two stories in this ‘parshia’, relating to a more fundamental theme of Sefer Breishit.
Leaving Avraham or Leaving God?
In Sefer Breishit, Lot is the first example of a family member who is ‘rejected from Avraham’s ‘chosen’ family. Many similar stories (such as the rejection of Yishmael & Esav) will follow.
As this “dechiya” [rejection] process will become a pattern within the “behcira” [choosing[ process, we should expect that the Torah’s description of these events (in the first section of this ‘parshia’) will at least allude to WHY Lot is rejected from the ‘chosen family’.
Even though both Avraham and Lot travel together to and from Egypt, the impact of that visit on each is profoundly different. Avraham, as reflected in the incident with Pharaoh and Sarah, saw corruption in Egypt. He returns to Eretz Canaan inspired with the resolve to preach against such corrupt behavior – to teach morality. Therefore, Avraham returns immediately to Bet-el, where he once again calls out in God’s Name. [See Ramban 12:8 and Rambam Hilchot Avodah Zara I:2-3!]
In contrast, Lot was impressed by the ‘good life’ in Egypt; not only by its wealth, but also by its climate – and especially its mighty river. Let’s explain how we reach this conclusion.
In an attempt to stop the quarrel between their herdsmen, Avraham had suggested a ‘split’ with Lot, i.e. one of them would travel to the right, the other to the left (see 13:7-9). Even though the words ‘right’ and ‘left’ are often understood as ‘east’ and ‘west’, Targum Onkelos explains that Avraham offered Lot to go either NORTH (left / see Breishit 14:15) or SOUTH (right, “ymin” as in Yemen/ see Devarim 3:27). Considering that they were standing in Bet-el (see 12:4), Avraham offered Lot to choose between the hills of YEHUDA (to the south / i.e. to the right) or SHOMRON (to the north, i.e. to the left), i.e. not a complete separation – only a far enough distance to avoid quarrels.
Lot did not accept Avraham’s offer. Instead, Lot opted to leave the mountain range of Eretz Canaan altogether, preferring the Jordan Valley
“And Lot lifted his eyes and saw the entire JORDAN valley, for it had plenty of water… like the LAND OF EGYPT…” (see 13:10).
Lot’s logic was quite reasonable. The Jordan Valley had a river, and hence a constant supply of water – in contrast to the mountain range whose water supply was dependent on the rainfall
However, Lot’s choice carried spiritual ramifications as well. As Parshat Ekev explains:
“For the land which you are coming to inherit [i.e. Eretz Canaan] is NOT like Eretz Mitzraim [which has the Nile River as a constant water supply]…, instead it is a land of hills and valleys – which needs RAIN for water. [Therefore] it is a land which God looks after…” (Devarim 11:10-12)
Symbolically, Lot’s choice reflects his preference for a different life-style. Avraham accepts the challenge of Eretz Canaan – a life dependent on MATAR (rain) and hence – dependent on God (see Devarim 11:13-16!). Lot prefers the ‘easy-life’ in Sdom. This understanding is reflected in the Midrash:
“va’yisa Lot m’KEDEM” – Midrash Agada – “hi’si’ah atzmo m’KADMONO shel olam – Lot lifted himself AWAY from God, saying, I can no longer remain with Avraham – nor with his God.” (quoted by Rashi on 13:11)
[Sdom is really to the east, therefore the pasuk should say “l’kedem” and not “m’kedem”. The Midrash picks up on this to show its deeper meaning. See also the use of “m’kedem” to show a direction away from God, as in 3:24 (leaving Gan Eden), 4:16 and 11:2.]
Lot’s total divorce from Avraham is indeed tragic for he has lost not only a ‘son’ but also a disciple. Therefore, God must now not only console Avraham, but also reassure him that despite Lot’s departure (13:14/ “acharei hi’pared Lot”) His promise of “zera v’aretz” remains.
Indeed, Avraham will yet have a child – a son who will follow in his footsteps as well.
Brit Bein Habetarim – The First Covenant
The next time God speaks to Avraham is in chapter 15 – better known as “brit bein habetarim”. There again, God promises “zera v’aretz” (see 15:18), however in this promise, for the first time, we find the framework of a “brit” – a covenant. To appreciate the significance of this covenant and its ‘dialogue’, we must take note of the events that precede it in chapter 14.
The battle of the four kings against the five kings in chapter 14 constitutes Avraham’s first military victory in Land. Yet, it is this military victory that leads us directly into the topic of “brit bein ha’btraim”. Note how chapter 15 opens as a direct continuation of that victory:
“achar ha’dvarim ha’eyleh – After THESE events, God spoke to Avram in a vision saying: Do not fearful… I will shield you, your reward is very great…” (see 15:1-2)
Now there are numerous opinions among the commentators explaining why Avraham was fearful (which are not mutually exclusive). However, there is one point that Avraham raises over and over again in his ensuing conversation that definitely relates to his military conquest, as well as his lack of a son:
“…Since you have given me no offspring – v’hinei ben beiti YORASH oti – behold my house servant [i.e. Eliezer] he will be my heir…” (see 15:3)
Avraham becomes upset as he realizes that without a son, everything that he has just acquired in this battle will be taken over by his servant Eliezer.
Considering that to become a nation, his offspring would sooner or later have to secure military conquest of the land (what we call ‘sovereignty’). Avraham’s military victory at this time could have achieved this goal. But realizing that he has no children of his own at this time, Avraham gave everything away (see 14:16-24). Hence, this military victory only heightened Avraham’s awareness that God’s promises remained unfulfilled. For a very good reason, Avraham is now worried that maybe he is no longer worthy of God’s original promise. (see Rashi 15:1)
To support this interpretation, let’s note the Torah’s use of the verb “yorash” [which is usually understood simply as to ‘inherit’] in the above pasuk, and in the pesukim that follow:
“And God answered: That one [Eliezer] will not YO’RASH you, rather your very own son (yet to be born) – he will YO’RASH you… & then He said to him: I am the Lord who brought you out of Ur Kasdim to give you this land l’RISHTAH… Then Avraham asked – b’mah ay’dah ki i’RASHENAH…” (15:4-8)
There is no doubt that “yerusha” is a key word in this conversation, but what does it mean?
Throughout Chumash, “YERUSHA” usually implies some sort of conquest (usually military, as in securing sovereignty over land). For example, in Parshat Masei God commandment for Bnei Yisrael to conquer the land is worded as follows:
“v’HORSHTEM et ha’ARETZ… – You shall conquer the land and live in it, for I have given you the land – L’RESHET otah.. (see Bamidbar 33:50-53, see also Breishit 22:17!
[Note as well the word “morasha” in this context in Shemot 6:5-8. Note also the special context of “morasha” in Devarim 33:4 – implying that Torah also requires a certain type of ‘conquest’ / see Maharam.]
This background can help us understand the ensuing conversation between God and Avraham.
First of all, God calms Avraham, promising him once again that the time will come and indeed he will have “zera” – as numerous as the stars in the heavens – that they will one day YORESH (conquer) the land (see 15:4-5). And indeed, Avraham is assured by this promise (see 15:6 “v’he’emin b’Hashem”).
Then, God initiates yet another conversation with the powerful statement of:
“I am the God who took you out of Ur Kaskim, to give you this land L’RISHTA – to inherit by conquest!” (see 15:7)
[Note similarity to Shmot 20:2 (first line of the Dibrot).]
In reaction, Avraham asks a rather puzzling question:
“b’mah aydah ki i’RASHENAH”! (see 15:8), which includes once again the word “yerusha”!
What is the meaning of this question?
It would not make sense that Avraham is asking for divine proof of God’s promise of “zera”? First of all, the previous pasuk just stated that Avraham believed in God’s promise (see 15:6). Furthermore, God does not answer this question with a proof! So what is Avraham’s question?
To answer this, we must ‘cheat’ a little by looking at God’s answer.
Recall once again Avraham’s question is: “b’mah aydah ki i’RASHENAH” in response to God’s promise that He has taken him out of Ur Kasdim in order that he YORASH the land (see 15:7-8).
God’s response to this question begins by instructing Avraham to perform a certain ceremony (see 15:9-12), however the actual answer to Avraham’s question doesn’t begin until 15:13. To understand why, carefully how God’s statement of “y’DOAH TAYDAH…” in 15:13 – forms a direct response to Avraham’s question of “b’MAH AYDAH…” in 15:8![The ceremony in 15:9-12 forms the preparation for the covenant that will be defined in 15:18.]
Not in Your Lifetime!
God’s answer to Avraham’s question continues from 15:13 thru 15:16. Note how it describes WHEN and HOW the YERUSHA of the Land will ultimately take place:
“Surely you should KNOW that your offspring will be strangers in a foreign land, where they will be afflicted and enslaved; four hundred years. But that nation that will enslave will [ultimately] be punished – afterward they [your offspring] will leave [that land] with great wealth. But you [Avraham] will die in peace… [i.e. before this difficult process begins]; only the fourth generation will return here [to inherit/ conquer this land] – for the sin of Emorites will not be complete until that time.”
To Avraham’s total surprise, God’s promise of “yerusha” (see 15:7) – sovereignty over the land, and the establishment of a nation – won’t take place in his own lifetime, or in his son’s lifetime! Instead, before his offspring will attain YERUSHA of the land, they must first undergo some ‘basic training’ in someone else’s land – a process that will include slavery and affliction in ‘a foreign land’. Only after some four hundred years will they attain this YERUSHA. [This ‘news’ comes as such a ‘shock’ to Avraham Avinu that Avraham must be first ‘sedated’ – see 15:12 & 15:17!]
In answer to Avraham’s question of “b’mah eydah” – God informs Avraham that in essence, he is only on a ‘pilot trip’ to Israel. It may be symbolic that he himself just conquered the land, and that he himself had already made God’s Name known by calling out in His Name – for these events foreshadow what his offspring will do (as a nation) in the future (“maaseh Avot, siman lebanim”). However, the ultimate fulfillment of God’s original promise that Avraham will establish great sovereign nation will only be fulfilled after many generations of important preparation.
Hence, Avraham’s question of “b’mah aydah ki i’RASHENAH” is a request to know WHEN (and possibly HOW) this YERUSHA will ultimately take place. [Recall that the Hebrew word “ki” can also mean ‘when’.]
A Proof from Vaera
To prove that this is God’s answer to Avraham’s question, we simply need to read the famous pesukim in Parshat Vaera (see Shemot 6:2-8), when God informs Moshe that the time has come to fulfill this covenant:
“And I have heard the cries of bondage of Bnei Yisrael… and I have remembered my COVENANT [i.e. “brit bein habetarim”], therefore, tell Bnei Yisrael I am God, and I will take you out of your suffering in Egypt… [the ‘four cups’ pesukim] and I will bring you to the land THAT I lifted up My hand to give to Avraham, Yitzchak and Yaakov, and I will then give it to you as a MORASHA [= “yerusha”]!”
(see Shmot 6:5-8)
Only after the Exodus, will God give the land to Bnei Yisrael as a MORASHA, as He promised to Avraham Avinu at brit bein habetarim.
The implications of this promise are so far reaching that they require an official covenant between God and Avraham, as described in final pesukim of this ‘parshia’, i.e. in 15:18-20.
This explains not only the thematic connection between chapters 14 and 15, but also the necessity of this additional promise of “zera v’aretz” in the form of a covenant. Brit bein habetarim includes not only the promise of becoming a nation, but also explains the long historical process of how Avraham’s offspring will one day become that nation.
Land – For a Purpose
This order of events that unfolds in Brit bein Habetarim, explaining HOW Bnei Yisrael will become a nation, is quite significant for it highlights the special nature of our relationship with the land.
The histories of all other nations of the world begin in a very different manner. Usually a nation begins when a group of people living in a common land sharing common resources and needs join together for the sake of common interest and form a nation. In other words, FIRST we have people living on a common land, and then those people become a nation. In contrast, Am Yisrael becomes a nation in a very different manner. We don’t begin with a common land, rather we begin with a common goal (or destiny), i.e. to become God’s model nation. In fact, the Torah emphasizes that we will become a nation in “land that is not ours” [see 15:13). Technically speaking, our initial bonding is caused by a common plight and suffering in a FOREIGN land. Only AFTER we become a nation, and only after we receive the Torah at Har Sinai (the laws that teach us how we are to achieve our goal), only then do we conquer the Land that God has designated for us.
In other words, we are not a nation because we have a common land, rather we are a nation because we share a common goal and destiny. The land serves as a vehicle to help our nation achieve that goal. [See first Rashi on Chumash, and read it carefully, noting how he explains a very similar theme.]
The Birth of Yishmael
The next ‘parshia’ in Parshat Lech Lecha describes the events that lead to the birth of Yishmael (see 16:1-16). God promises that he too will become a mighty nation, but a rather wild one (see 16:12). For some divine reason, God’s intention is that Avraham’s only chosen will be born to Sarah, but only after her lifelong struggle with barrenness.
However, before Avram and Sarai can give birth to this special child, God must change their names to AvraHam and SarAH and enter into yet another covenant – better known as “brit milah”.
The next ‘parshia’, describing the covenant of BRIT MILAH (see 17:1-11), contains the fourth and final promise of “zera v’aretz” in Parshat Lech Lecha. As this brit includes the very FIRST MITZVA that Avraham must keep and pass on to his children, its details are very important. In fact they are so important that their thematic significance has already been discussed in three earlier shiurim.
- The significance of “brit milah” on the ‘eighth day’ was discussed at length in our shiur for Shmini Atzeret (sent out a few weeks ago/ see TSC archive for Parshat Tazria).
- The thematic connection between “brit milah” and “brit bein habetarim” was discussed in our shiur for Chag ha’MATZOT and on Parshat Bo and on MAGID.
- The meaning the borders of the Land of Israel as detailed in “brit milah” (and “brit bein habetarim”) was discussed in the shiur on Parshat Masei.
Therefore, we will not discuss “brit milah” in detail in this week’s shiur. Instead, we simply note how this “brit” serves as the introduction to the birth of Yitzchak, and the prerequisite for his conception.
The final ‘parshia’ in Parshat Lech Lecha (see 17:15-27) details how Avraham fulfills this commandment. Yet, at the same time, God informs him that the “bechira” process will continue ONLY thru Yitzchak, who will soon be born (see 17:15-21); and NOT with Yishmael, even though he also fulfilled the mitzva of “brit milah” (see 17:20-24).
[Be sure to note the textual parallel between 17:7-8,19 and God’s covenant with Noach in 6:18 and 9:8-17; “v’akmal”.]
We have shown how God’s original choice of Avraham Avinu was not in REWARD for his merits, but rather IN ORDER that he fulfill God’s mission – to become His nation. As this mission is eternal, so too is God’s choice of the Jewish Nation. As we concluded in the first shiur on Parshat Lech Lecha, we find once again a Biblical theme that stresses our need to focus more so on our RESPONSIBILITY to act as God’s special nation, and less so on those PRIVILEGES that it includes.