88:4 Nolad is something that came into existence on Shabbos. Examples of nolad include ashes from a fire that was lit on Shabbos by a non-Jew, an egg that was laid on Shabbos, and the sap that flows from trees in the month of Nisan. Similarly, even if something didn’t come into existence on Shabbos but it resulted from an action that may not be performed on Shabbos, such as fruit that fell from a tree or that was picked by a non-Jew, or milk that was milked on Shabbos, etc., such things may not be handled. Bread baked by a non-Jew on Shabbos in a city that is mostly non-Jewish may be eaten by a Jew on Shabbos in a case of need or in order to fulfill a mitzvah since the odds are that it was not baked for a Jew. (The Jew may not pay before Shabbos because then the non-Jew will bake for him on Shabbos – Rema 325:4. One may eat the bread but he may not negotiate the purchase of the bread on Shabbos – Mishnah Brurah 325:19.)
88:5 Examples of utensils whose purpose is to perform activities that are forbidden on Shabbos (“kli shemelachto l’issur”) include a mortar, a mill, a hammer, an axe, a broom (see 80:73 regarding the status of sweeping our modern floors), a shofar, a menorah, a sewing needle, candles, wicks, and garments containing shaatnez (a forbidden mixture of wool and linen), which are forbidden to be worn. Such things may be handled if one needs them for a permitted purpose, such as a hammer to crack nuts, an axe to cut food, or a needle to remove a splinter, though if the point or the eye of the needle is broken off, it may not be handled at all. Similarly, one may handle items of this type if one needs to use the space they occupy. Since one picks the item up with permission, he may carry it and put it down wherever he wishes; the same is true if he forgot and picked something up inadvertently. (Some authorities disagree regarding an object picked up inadvertently – MB 308:13.) However, he may only move the item if he needs it for a permitted purpose or for its place; one may not handle a kli shemelachto l’issur for its own sake, such as to save the object from theft or damage. Tefillin may not be handled on Shabbos but if they have been left in an inappropriate place where they may get dirty, then they may be picked up and moved to a safer place.