Yevamos 12:6-13:1

Yevamos 12:6

The chalitzah ritual is performed as follows: the man and the woman go to the beis din, who give him appropriate advice as per Deuteronomy 25:8, “The elders of his city…will speak to him.” The woman says, “My husband’s brother refuses to establish a name in Israel for his brother by performing the duty of a husband’s brother” (i.e., yibum). He replies, “I do not wish to marry her.” This dialogue is performed in Hebrew. Next, the woman unties the man’s shoe and spits in front of him; the spit must be visible to the judges. She then says, “So shall be done to the man who refuses to establish his brother’s house.” The judges would prompt the woman this far, and she would repeat the text after them. Rabbi Hurkanos in Kfar Eitam would prompt the woman in the text until the end of the section and such became the accepted practice: they would continue with the words, “His name will be called in Israel ‘the house of the one who had his shoe loosened.’” It is a mitzvah for the judges to repeat this name but not for their students (who might happen to be present as observers). Rabbi Yehuda says that it is a mitzvah for everyone present to say, “The one who had his shoe loosened, the one who had his shoe loosened, the one who had his shoe loosened.”

Yevamos 13:1

Beis Shammai say that a minor girl who was married off by her mother and brothers may only refuse from betrothal; Beis Hillel say she may refuse from both betrothal and marriage. Beis Shammai say that she may refuse the husband but not yibum; Beis Hillel say she may refuse both the husband and yibum. Beis Shammai say the girl may only refuse the marriage in the husband’s presence; Beis Hillel say she may refuse whether in his presence or not. Beis Shammai say that the refusal must take place in front of a beis din; Beis Hillel say whether in front of a beis din or not. Beis Hillel said to Beis Shammai that the girl may refuse as a minor, even four or five times (i.e., to four or five different husbands). Beis Shammai replied that Jewish girls should not be treated so lightly! Rather, after refusing as a minor once, she does not get betrothed again until she reaches the age of majority, or she refuses as a minor once and is married (because she may no longer exercise the refusal option).
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