Jerusalem; the Eternal Capital City of the Land of Israel and of the Jewish People. Established as such by King David approx. 3,000 years ago. First Temple was constructed there by David’s son, Shlomo (Solomon), ca. 1000 B.C.E. and was destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E. The Second Temple was rebuilt by Ezra and Nechemiah ca. 516 B.C.E. and it stood until 70 C.E., when it was destroyed by the Romans. Thus a Temple stood in Yerushalayim some 1,000 years (according to this version; according to another version, a Temple stood 163 years less.)
The Old City of Jerusalem was captured by the Israel Defense Forces during the Six Day War of 1967, unifying the city for the first time in approximately 1900 years. According to Jewish Tradition, those who mourn for Jerusalem will one day merit to see it in its rebuilt state. At that time, according to Jewish prophecies, the Third Temple will be rebuilt, and then our mourning will turn into celebration.