MISC section -
Q Don't the cartons that store
sifrei kodesh (holy books) require geniza (burial of sacred articles)? Most
people seem to just throw them out.
In the normal case of a carton or paper or plastic covering of seforim there are a few reasons to justify throwing them in the garbage. We will mention a few reasons and also techniques to deal with the situation, because some of the possibilities are not unanimously agreed upon and because there are analogous cases where some factors apply but others do not.
The Birkei Yosef (Orach Chayim 154, in Shiyurei Beracha) says that in our days when the pages of seforim are generally bound in some way, the boxes that store them are considered TdT. (In the times of Chazal and beyond, scrolls were put directly into boxes or leather bags.) The Mishna Berura (154:9) seems to accept this opinion without question, although some recent poskim are less convinced. (Rav Kook in Orach Mishpat 34 seems to ignore this possibility; Tzitz Eliezer VII 7 considers it possible, but not certain, grounds for leniency). We should note that an Aron Kodesh is a TK even though the Sifrei Torah are usually covered, because it honors the Sifrei Torah. In contrast, the carton is used only to protect the books and it is thus considered a TdT (Birkei Yosef, ibid.).
Another factor that causes most cartons or paper or plastic covers from being a TK is the fact that they are intended to be used only temporarily, until the sefer reaches its intended destination on the purchaser's bookshelf (Piskei Teshuvot 154:7). Part of the Shulchan Aruch's (Orach Chayim 42:3) definition of a TK is that it was prepared to be used on a permanent basis. That is missing here in most cases, as the intention is to throw out the covering at the first convenience. This factor does not apply to strong cartons that a person uses for sets of seforim on a bookshelf or a table top on a permanent or an extended basis. Although one can make a T'nai (stipulation) that the strong carton not become a TK (Shulchan Aruch 154:8), one can still not use it in a demeaning manner (Mishna Berura 154:34). Discarding directly in the garbage is demeaning, while covering it in a plastic bag before putting it in the garbage or putting it in a recycling bin, while not a substitute for geniza, is probably sufficient in this case (see Mishne Halachot VII 24 & Ask the Rabbi, Chukat 5762).
A technique that might work to remove the status of TK is to sell the object for a nominal price (10 agurot is enough) and use the money for seforim. The main application of that concept is where the community has property set aside for a mitzva (i.e. a shul), which its leaders (zayin tuvei ha'ir) can sell and use the moneyfor at least as holy a purpose (Shulchan Aruch, OC 153:9). Although it is not clear that this system works for an individual to remove the status of TK, some poskim suggest doing so along with other factors of leniency (Orach Mishpat, ibid.; Tzitz Eliezer, ibid.).
In summary, the standard practice to discard the packagings of sifrei kodesh is halachically valid. Only in regard to cartons that are used for an extended time after purchase may there be reason not to throw them directly in the garbage, and we have suggested systems which one may (but not necessarily needs to) use.
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Yisrael, on the other hand, refers to Yaakov's struggle to free himself and return to land of his fathers. While he was in the house of Lavan, Yaakov accumulated wealth, and just then, he had a dream, a vision in which an angel of God said: "Get up, leave this land and return to the land of your birth."
Yaakov accepted the challenge and wrestled to free himself from the enslaving forces of material gain. It was then that an angel named him Yisrael, indicating his victory over the quest for the mundane.
We, in Israel, have a major problem with our enemies, but please God, we shall overcome. Our brethren in the Diaspora face a different problem, a very serious problem of intermarriage and assimilation. Too many Jews in the Diaspora are headed for the desolate zone of historic non-existence.
How do we confront this serious problem? Do we react or do we respond? There is an enormous difference between these two behaviors.
A reaction is very superficial; it involves surrender to fate. A response is dynamic; a response is facing up to the challenge of destiny.
Bound together by centuries of anguished history, we must respond as Yaakov Avinu did; we must wrestle with our problems and ultimately achieve the glories of our destiny.
Rabbi Charles Weinberg,
Females also use their raised tail as a 'follow me' signal for the cubs. They also use it to signal each other during a group hunt... lion's teeth are well adapted for killing their prey and eating it. The great canine teeth are spaced such that they can slip between the cervical vertebrae of their favorite-sized prey animals, and sever the spinal cord... do not chew their food, but swallow it in chunks. They also use only one side of their mouth at a time... caused by the inability of the jaw to move side-to- side. The tongue is covered with rough spines... helps the lion scrape meat off of bones, and acts like a comb for grooming... magnificent roar (can be heard 8km away)...Lion cubs are born blind... eyes open in about 2-3 weeks, but they probably don't function for about a week after that... The mother lion keeps her cubs by themselves for the first few weeks, but then introduces them to the pride. Once introduced, cubs may suckle any lactating female. This helps bond the cubs to the adults, and promotes survival... Cub mortality is extremely high, with only one in eight surviving to adulthood... First of all, teething is painful, and weakens the cub so that many die during teething.
Mother lions can become
absorbed by some activity, and will forget for a while that they have cubs
to care for. A new male taking over a pride will kill all of the cubs, so
that the pride contains only cubs of his siring. Finally, cubs are at the
bottom of the feeding hirearchy, and only get food when the adults are
filled. Indeed, many cubs starve to death when food is scarce. An
interesting exception to this is that male lions will frequently let the
cubs share his food, while the females make the cubs wait their turn... cubs
spend much of thier waking time playing, and practicing the survival skills
they will need as adults. Just before they are a year old, they will join
their parents in the hunt. Before the cubs have reached the age of two, they
can bring down prey as large as a gazelle by themselves. At age two, lions
become sexually mature, and males start to grow manes. The appearance of the
mane causes the young males to be driven out of the pride. Females usually
stay with the pride for their entire life... Females go through a sort of
'trial' when they reach adulthood, to see if they can stand up to the other
adult females. This takes the form of harassment at kills, minor fights,
etc. Those who can take the harassment of the other females are ultimately
accepted into the pride. Those that are intimidated, and run away when
harassed, become nomads. Lionesses accepted into the pride are members for
life, and are still welcome even when age or injury makes them less
Havdala time being later in Petach Tikva than in Jerusalem indicates that it gets darker in PT later than in J'lem. And this is consistent with Plag Mincha (the earliest candle lighting time) being later in PT than in J'lem.
You would expect it to follow that regular candle lighting time should also be later in PT. However, whereas both PT and J'lem follow the special minhag of lighting 40 minutes before sunset (unlike almost anywhere else in Israel and the world, where 18-22 minutes before sunset is the norm), the question is 40 minutes before what sunset?
Strange question. In fact, PT
being at sea level, has only one sunset time. But Yerushalayim is at an
elevation of 825 meters above sea level, AND the horizon at sea level can be
seen from parts of Jerusalem. This produces a second sunset time, the one
taking elevation into account being about 5 minutes later than the sea level
one. Jerusalem's regular candle lighting time is calculated from the later
sunset time; most other zmanim do not use that later time. The result is an
apparent anomaly. It's almost like saying that the J'lem minhag is 35 min.
whereas the PT minhag is 40.
Take, for example, Ya'akov's blessing to Yosef before the ailing father died. Inter alia, Ya'akov declares: "As for me, I have given you 'Shechem' - one portion more than your brothers, which I took from the hand of the Emorite with my sword and my bow" (Breishit 48:21).
According to Gur Aryeh, Ya'akov's wresting the birthright from Esav (the Emorite) entitles him to confer his double portion to Yosef. And here, "my sword and my bow" refer to the spiritual weapons that earned Ya'akov that status.
The sword is the steadfast prayer that pierces the barriers above and below. The effectiveness of the bow, in contrast, matches the intensity of that prayer: the more it is extended the greater its efficacy. Prayer, like the sword, can be drawn on repeatedly. The Hebrew term for my bow ("Bekashti"), however, can also be read as "Bakashati", my supplication: Here, the swiftness of the one-time arrow is indicative of the spontaneous and rushing search for G-d.
Clearly, the righteous summon
strength through the power of prayer. To cite the psalmist: "[There are
those] with chariots… and with horses. But we call out in the name of Hashem"