Numbers in [brackets] are the mitzva-count according to the Sefer HaChinuch. Other counts vary.
The sedra begins with Yaakov at age 147, having been in Mitzrayim for 17 years. (Remember that Yosef was 17 when the trouble started - any significance to the number 17?) The Torah tells us that Yaakov is near death and Yosef is called to his bedside. Yaakov asks Yosef that he (Yaakov) should not be buried in Egypt butrather in Me'arat HaMachpeila. Yosef agrees; Yaakov asks Yosef to swear.
[SDT] Why would Yaakov ask Yosef to swear - didn't he trust him?
Among other reasons mentioned in commentaries, the oath might prove necessary in obtaining permission from Par'o for the funeral. Even if Par'o would have been inclined to say "no", he would respect an oath. This, according to the Midrash, would not be because he was so honorable, but rather because Yosef had sworn notto divulge a particular secret about Par'o. Par'o could not say to Yosef, "I don't care what promises you made".
There are commentaries who suggest another possible reason for making Yosef swear - Yosef might be very upset about his mother not being buried in the "proper" place, but rather "on the road", and he might not respond favorably to his father's request.
[SDT] Yaakov asks Yosef for Chesed v'Emet - "True Kindness". It is generally considered that tending to the burial of the dead is the purest form of kindness, because, among other reasons, it is the one situation in which the recipient of your kindness cannot repay the favor. It is an act of kindness without recompense.
Commentators question this idea in Yosef's case. We are taught that Yosef merited having his remains taken out of Egypt as a reward for his attention to Yaakov's wishes. How can we refer to what he did for his father as Chesed shel Emet? One answer is that Yosef received reward in kind only by being taken out of Egypt andburied in the Land of Israel. His body spent a long time in Egypt. His act of True Kindness to his father was that Yaakov's body did not spend even a moment being buried in Egypt. For this, Yosef was not paid back in kind; his action on behalf of Yaakov's funeral arrangements WAS Chesed shel Emet.
Some time later, Yosef is informed (by Ephraim who regularly ministers to and learns Torah with Yaakov) that Yaakov is sick ("at death's door"). Yosef brings his two sons with him to Yaakov (so that they can receive his blessing). Yaakov is strengthened by the news of Yosef's impending visit (Thus is the power of BikurCholim).
[G'matriya] TheTalmud tells us that one who visits the sick diminishes the person's illness by 1/60 (specifically, if the visitor and the ill person are close). Such was the case when Yosef visited his father. This idea is supported by G'matriya. "And he said to Yosef - HINEI AVICHA CHOLEH (Behold, your father is sick)."Thenumeric value of HINEI is 60. After Yosef's visit, the Torah tells us that Yaakov sat up "AL HAMITA (on the bed)". The numeric value of HAMITA is 59.
[SDT] As to who told Yosef that his father was sick, it is Rashi who brings the opinion that it was Ephraim, who tended to Yaakov's needs in Goshen while Yosef was in Egypt proper. The Midrash says that it was As'nat, Yosef's wife, who told him. Speaking of As'nat... The Midrash says that she was Dina's daughter, who wasraised by Potifar in Egypt. The Midrash also says that when Potifar's wife accused Yosef of improper advances, it was As'nat who privately told Potifar the truth, thus saving Yosef's life.
Yaakov tells Yosef of HaShem's promises to him and his descendants and of Rachel's death and burial. He then assures Yosef that his two sons - Ephraim and Menashe - will be considered equal to Yaakov's sons. (This in essence, is the double portion of inheritance that Yaakov is giving to "his heart's first-born", the elderof his beloved Rachel's sons.)
Then Yaakov takes notice of the boys and asks Yosef to present them so that he can bless them.
[SDT] We are taught that Yaakov Avinu was the first to be sick before he died, that is, the first to associate his illness with impending death. Until then, a person died with an exhale of breath, with a sneeze, perhaps. This is the origin of blessing one who sneezes with health. Yaakov accepted his situation as a blessing,giving him time to "put his affairs in order". It has been said that the relatively short lifespan of man (compared with antediluvian longevity) and illnesses of various and sundry types, have instilled in us an instinctive awareness of our mortality. And that keeps us closer to the "straight and narrow".
Yaakov's eyesight fails him in his old age (as did Yitzchak's) and Yosef brings his sons and moves them towards Yaakov, who kisses and hugs them. Yosef then takes his sons off of Yaakov's lap (so that he can present them in such a way that Yaakov's right hand will rest on firstborn Menashe). After bowing before Yaakov,Yosef carefully and formally presents his sons to Yaakov with Menashe on the left and Ephraim on the right so that Yaakov's hands will rest on the appropriate heads for the blessings. Yaakov switches hands, resting his right on Ephraim and his left on Menashe. Yaakov thus blesses Yosef by blessing his (Yosef's) childrenwith the famous words: HAMAL'ACH HA'GO'EL OTI... [The best blessing a father can receive is one for his children.]
Yaakov's reference to fish in his blessings for Ephraim and Menashe (and for all Jewish children in perpetuity) is explained on at least two levels. Fish are prolific; Yaakov was blessing his descendants that they should become a large nation. (Note, however, that his blessing was for 'in the midst of the Land'.) It isalso known that the EYIN HARA has no hold over fish. And this too was part of his bracha. (BTW, the Yiddish name Fischel (meaning fish) is often paired with Ephraim; obviously, this bracha is the source of that name-pair.)
When Yosef realizes that Yaakov has switched hands (and has thus "favored" Ephraim over the firstborn Menashe) he gets (understandably) very upset and tries to "correct" the positions of Yaakov's hands. Yaakov resists, explaining to Yosef that he is fully aware of what he is doing; and that Ephraim will indeed surpass hisbrother in greatness. On this same day, Yaakov blesses them by saying that the traditional blessing for sons shall be: "May G-d make you like Ephraim and Menashe".
Think about this...
Imagine the panic that Yosef must have felt when he witnessed the potential of "history repeating itself". How can Yaakov do what he was doing when he was painfully aware of the consequences of favoring one son and of the jealousy that it creates (can create).
That's the point! It CAN create jealousy, but it need not. It depends upon the character of the people involved. A parent can "tiptoe" around just so long, making everything equal and even, in the hopes that jealousy will not rear its ugly head. But that kind of behavior just postpones the jealousy, not eliminates it. Parentshave to build the character of their children, so that they will develop good MIDOT, personality traits.
Perhaps Yaakov Avinu saw that his two grandsons possessed the qualities that "allowed" him to do what he did.
Two major personality traits that a person should strive for are: not being boastful when in a superior position and not being resentful when in an inferior position. Ephraim was destined to become greater than his older brother Menashe. These two brothers were such that Ephraim did not lord himself over Menashe, nor wasMenashe jealous of Ephraim's prominence. What greater blessing can a father give his sons than "May G-d make you like Ephraim and Menashe!
Yaakov then tells Yosef that he is about to die; that G-d will be with the family-nation; that He will restore them to the land of their ancestors; and that he (Yaakov) has provided Yosef with an additional portion of the Land.
Yaakov gathers his sons around him with intentions of revealing to them "the end of days" (knowing the future will ease the pain of the difficult times ahead) - but it is not to be!
Perhaps, part of Jewish Life not knowing what the future has in store, and being able to shape it with our deeds.
[SDT] Rashi says that Yaakov wanted to reveal the "KEITZ" (end of time), but was not allowed to do so by G-d. The original prophecy concerning the exile in Egypt was given to Avraham in the "Covenant between the Pieces". There he was told that his descendants would be oppressed for 400 years. In fact, the people were enslavedfor 210 years. The additional 190 years is calculated from the birth of Yitzchak - once Avraham had his first descendant, the "clock of exile", so to speak, began ticking. Egyptian exile would have been more tolerable, had our ancestors known about this 190 year "grace period". This is the KEITZ (KUF = 100 + TZADI = 90)that Yaakov wanted to reveal to his sons.
There is a further reference to KEITZ in the Pesach Haggada. We say that G-d kept His promise by "calculating the KEITZ", by including the 190 years in the total of 400. This is what Yaakov wanted to tell his sons - do not despair, your exile will be shorter than you expect. But this he was not permitted to reveal.
When Yakov realized that he was not being allowed by G-d to reveal the End, he feared that there was sin among his sons. He confronted them and they answered that the letters CHET and TET, that spell SIN, were not in the spellings of their names. Neither were the letters KUF and TZADI, which spell END. - Baal HaTurim
The Baal HaTurim also points out that the word SHIM'U, appearing twice in the pasuk - listen sons of Yaakov, and listren to Yisrael, your fathers - can be broken down into SH'MA - VAV, a hint to the Sh'ma of 6 words which the brothers proclaimed to their father to indicate that all the brothers were whole in their beliefin G-d.
What Yaakov does say to his sons are the descriptions of their character and his blessings for them. (The blessings, often mixed with fatherly criticism, combine to become the brachot of the Tribes.)
Yaakov's words about Reuven speak of his unrealized potential to have been the leader and the indiscretion that lost him the position of leader.
Although Reuven is repeatedly identified as the B'CHOR (firstborn), it is obvious that he forfeited part of that status to Yosef. Baal HaTurim finds a G'matriya-remez (hint) to this idea. REUVEN = 200+1+6+2+50 = 259. LO B'CHOR (not the first born) = 30+1 (31) + 2+20+6+200 (228) = 259. Reuven is NOT the B'chor. To whom doesthe B'CHORA (firstbornhood) belong? B'CHORA = 2+20+6+ 200+5 = 233. Full G'matriya of YOSEF = 10+6+4 (20) + 6+6 (12) + 60+40+20 (120) + 80+1 (81) = 233
Yaakov refers to the violence of Shimon and Levi. He curses their anger - not them. (Important lesson for us all from this point.)
Yehuda receives the brightest words - he is promised the leadership and respect of his brothers.
Zevulun is given the blessing of prosperity and Yissachar will carry the burden of Torah scholarship. Together, these two tribes will form a partnership that will be mutually beneficial.
Dan will be the judge (and upholder of the honor) of the people. Rashi says that this is a prophecy about Shimshon.
Gad will be blessed with good fortune (this is Malbim's interpretation which is by far the most optimistic of the various understandings of the pasuk).
Asher's blessing also seems to be that of prosperity (and/or eloquence).
Yosef's blessing is extensive and shows Yaakov's special love for him. It is the bracha of Avraham to Yitzchak and of Yitzchak to Yaakov that Yaakov gives to Yosef, son of Rachel.
The Baal HaTurim points out that the initials of GUR ARYEI YEHUDA - Gimel+Alef+Yud = 14, the numeric value of DAVID.
Furthermore, GUR ARYEI = 3+6+200 (209) + 1+200+10+5 (216) = 425. This is the same numeric value as ZEH NACHSHON (this is Nachson, one of the outstanding person alities from the tribe of Yehuda. 7+5 (12) + 50+8+300+6+50 (414) =426. (Once again, no need to fret over the difference of 1.)
BEN PORAT (YOSEF) = 2+50 (52) + 80+200+400 (680) = 732.
The Baal HaTurim points out that this is the G'matriya of Ephraim and Menashe: 1+80+200+10+40 (331) + 6 + 40+50+300+5 (395) = 732
BTW, Reuven and Shimon = 200+1+6+2+50 (259) + 300+40+70+6+50 (466) + 6 for the connecting VAV = 731. Yaakov said that Ephraim & Menashe shall be LIKE Reuven and Shimon. This works out perfectly with the G'matriyas being one off.
Binyamin is blessed with success (sometimes qualified). Rashi mentions prophecies of Shaul and Mordechai & Esther. These are Yaakov's words to his 12 sons and he blessed them.
[sdt] Yaakov addresses Shimon and Levi together. That means that there are 11 statements (brachot) all together. The first letters of each statement, not counting the name of the son, add up to 365. The last letters of each statement add up to 354. These are the lengths of the solar and lunar year respectively. [Bal HaTurim]
Commentaries point out that Yaakov's words don't always seem to be blessings - but they do contain implied blessings and prophecies.
Yaakov tells his sons that he is about to die and wants to be buried in Me'arat HaMachpeila. (He does not make them swear as Yosef did, since they might not be in a position to fulfill their oath.) Yaakov expires.
The wording in the Torah is indirect - the words death or dying are not used - indicating the special quality of life even in death of Yaakov Avinu.
The Torah next tells of the preparation for burial. Yosef tells Par'o of his oath and receives permission for the funeral procession to Canaan. The funeral and mourning for Yaakov is elaborate and extensive.
When they return to Egypt, the brothers are filled with guilt feelings and offer themselves to Yosef as slaves. Once again, Yosef assures the brothers that all that has happened is G-d's will and for the best.
Yosef promises to support his brothers and families. Yosef lives to 110 (less than his brothers - punishment for hearing his father humiliated and not objecting). Yosef has helped raise even his great- grandchildren. He tells his brothers that G-d will eventually take them out of Egypt and restore them to the Land of Israel,andasks them to remember him and take his remains with them when they leave. Yosef dies (as do the brothers); thus B'reishit, the book of the Avot & Imahot (Fathers & Mothers), ends.
It is customary for the congregation to "be upstanding" and say "Chazak, Chazak V'Nit'chazeik" when the reader finishes a book of the Torah. The reader then says it aloud. The one who has the Aliya, should NOT say it, as it can be considered an interruption between the Torah portion and his final bracha. (Not sure how "important"this point is, but if possible, it sh/b followed.
The final 4 p'sukim are reread for the Maftir.
A short Haftara for a short sedra.
Just as the sedra tells us of the father on his deathbed giving instructions and blessings to his sons, and requesting an act of Chesed, so too do we find King David at death's door, instructing his son Shlomo concerning matters of faith and state and Chesed. David, having served as king for 40 years, departs this world.
In A HAFTARA COMPANION by Rabbi Dr. Julian G. Jacobs, the author not only compares the sedra to the Haftara, but he contrasts the final words of Yaakov and David respectively. Yaakov has the peaceful feeling of finally having all his sons with him; David HaMelech is talking only with Shlomo. He has been betrayed by othersand issues harsh instructions to Shlomo concerning certain individuals. Yaakov does criticize the acts of Shimon and Levi, creating similarities to David's words. So too does the author point out two different phrases common to Yaakov and David. And the days to die of... came closer, indicates a shorter life than one'spredecessors. Yaakov's years fell short of his fathers, and David too had a relatively short life. Then there is the expression "to sleep with one's fathers", rather that mentioning dying. In each case, because of the continuity through his son, the life of the father continues beyond his passage from this world. The fatherremains alive because of the deeds of the son. He is only sleeping.