B"H Yom Yom
from Day by Day in Jewish History
• [24 Tammuz] Crusaders gathered the Jews of Jerusalem into a shul and set it aflame, 1099. All perished in the fire. Jews were barred from the city for the following 88 years. --0-- Yahrzeit of Rabbi Yaakov Joseph (RJJ), 1902.
• [July 27] Jews of New Amsterdam re quested permission to open a cemetery in 1655. Permission was initially denied and was finally granted a year later. --0-- A plane bound for Israel was shot down by Bulgaria, 1955. 58 people were killed. --0-- New Zealand recognized Israel, 1950 (what took them so long?)
• [25 Tammuz] Jews of Lithuania received a Charter of Privilege, 1388. (Interesting how differently one country behaved towards the Jews in different periods of time. And how other countries also varied in their behavior, but not matched to others.) --0-- Anti- Jewish rioters attacked the funeral procession of Rabbi Yaakov Joseph in New York City, 1902.
• [July 28] Jewish males of Aniksht and the Jews of Vilkovishk, both Lithuania, were killed by the Nazis, 1941 --0-- 3000 children were killed by Chmeilnicki's hordes in Konstantnow, 1648. --0-- 10,000 Jews of Minsk were killed by the Nazis, 1942.
• [26 Tammuz] Yahrzeit of Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried, author of Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (and other works), 1886. It was estimated that over a 250,000copies of the KSA were extant at the time of the authors death. Imagine how many copies since then has been printed and sold. --0-- Jews of Upina, Lithuania were executed by the Nazis, 1941.
• [July 29] First shipload of Russian Jews arrived in New York, 1881, following pogroms in Russia. This was the beginning of mass immigration to the U.S. during that period of time. --0-- A religious youth center, Tiferet achurim, was secretly opened in the Kovno ghetto, 1942.
• [27 Tammuz] Pope Innocent III promulgated a Church doctrine that the Jews were doomed to perpetual servitude and subjugation because they had killed Jesus, 1205. (The charge of deicide against the Jews was not officially removed from Church doctrine until 1963. There are still many Christians who believe in the guilt of the Jews, and many who act upon that belief.) --0-- The third expulsion of the Jews of France, 1322. (One wonders why they kept coming back.) --0-- A Jew and the Russian naval officer who converted to Judaism, having been influenced and/or taught by that Jew, were both burned at the stake in St. Petersburg, 1738. --0-- Jews of Holstein, Germany were granted equality, 1893.
• [July 30] Israeli airmen shot down four MIGs flown by Russian pilots over the Suez, 1970. This marked the first military encounter between Israeli and Russian forces. --0-- German elections, 1878, resulted in the reactionary element having a dominant voice in the Reichstag. This date is considered the birthday of modern German anti- Semitism. --0-- 16 Jews were burned at the stake in Barcelona, 1488.
• [28 Tammuz] 41 Jews were burned at the stake in Breslau, 1453. the rest of the Jews were expelled. --0-- Jews of Brussels were ordered expelled, 1716. --0-- Jews of Hebron were attacked by Arabs, 1835. --0-- 5000 Jews of Rovno, Polish Ukraine, were killed by the Nazis, 1942.
Note: Every time I include an item relating to a specific town, I realize that most people probably never heard of the place. But I know that some people have. And a few, or even one, maybe came from there. Or a member of the family. And the item means something special to that person. 41 Jews here, 5000 Jews there, 30,000 somewhere else, 1 Jew in yet another place. Places and times and numbers all vary. The death of a Jew, anywhere, any place, any time - because they were Jewish - affects (or should) us all.
• [July 31] The ghetto in Florence, Italy was established, 1571. --0-- The Final Solution was officially undertaken by the Nazis, by order of Goering, 1941. --0-- The one millionth Oleh since the establishment of the State, arrived in Israel, 1961.
• [29 Tammuz] Yahrzeit of Rashi, "best friend" of anyone who learns Torah or Talmud, 1105. --0-- The entire male Jewish population of Grodz, Lithuania was killed by the Nazis, 1941. --0--
• [August 1] World War I broke out, 1914. --0-- The Russian army liberated Kovno in 1944. --0-- First reliable report of the Nazi plan to murder all the Jews reached the West, 1942. The U.S. State Department supressed the report for several weeks, until it had otherwise been received by Jews in New York.
• [1 Av] Peaks of the tallest mountains emerged above the receding waters of the Flood. --0-- Egypt was afflicted with Frog(s). --0-- Yahrzeit of Aharon HaKohen. (This is the ONLY yahrzeit mentioned in the Torah. It is not recorded in Parshat Chukat, which tells of Aharon's death, but rather in Mas'ei, when we bench Rosh Chodesh Av.) --0-- Yahrzeit of Elazar b. Aharon HaKohen. --0-- Ezra and his followers arrived in Yerushalayim, 457bce.
(On the one hand, one can view this item as the positive "other side of the coin" of the tragedies that are associated with the "entrance of Av". On the other hand, it was the relatively small percentage of the people that returned with Ezra that was the seed of the destruction of the second Beit HaMikdash 500+ years later.) --0-- Armed revolt at Treblinka, 1943. One of several similar outbreaks that were encouraged by the changing tide of the war against Germany. --0-- The Exodus bearing illegal immigrants was seized by the British, 1947. The Exodus 1947 carried 4000 Jews. Its stirring defiance of the British navy and its ultimate forced return to Germany, was one of the most dramatic and heroic episodes of post-war Jewish history.
• [August 2] The period of the expulsion from Spain began, 1492 (it was Tish'a b'Av). --0-- Hitler assumed the powers of head of state and commander-in- chief of the armies, making him an absolute dictator, 1934. --0-- Jews were ordered expelled from Hungarian Ruthenia, 1941 (it too was Tish'a b'Av). --0-- A handful of Jewish survivors of the Kovno ghetto — including Rabbi Efrayim Oshri, author of Responsa from the Holocaust — emerged from hiding, 1944.
• [2 Av] Titus commenced battering the walls of the courtyard of the Beit HaMikdash, 70ce. --0-- The Inquisition was established in Rome by Pope Clement IV, 1267. --0-- Pope Gregory X banned blood-ritual charges against the Jews, 1274. This was neither the first nor the last time a pope tried to ban charges of ritual murder against the Jews. None were very successful. --0-- Last execution of the Inquisition in Peru took place in 1806. --0-- French police rounded up 30,000 Jews (including 4500 children) for deportation, 1942. Only 30 adults are known to have survived the round up.
• [August 3] Columbus set sail for the New World, 1492. There is an entry in Columbus' diary noting the expulsion of Jews from Spain right before he set sail. --0-- Follow this one; these really gets you — The emperor of Bohemia, in 1797, ordered that Jews who volunteered for army service should be allowed to marry outside the restricted quota of marriage of Jews. Think about that one! --0-- Oil pipeline from Eilat to Haifa was completed, 1958.