T - WTzom Gedaliah, Yom Kippur, Asarah B'Tevet, Taanit Esther, Shivah Asar B'Tammuz and Tisha B'Av.
"Taanit Esther" - The Day of fasting instituted by Queen Esther in ancient Persia to arouse the Jewish People to Repentance. This was to avert the evil decree to implement the genocidal plan of Haman to kill all the Jews on one day, the thirteenth of Adar. Fortunately, the Teshuvah was successful, and Haman's plan was overturned upon himself, and he spent Purim swinging with his ten sons from the gallows that he had prepared for Mordechai. At the end of this Fast Day is the beginning of Purim, which begins with the Reading of Megillat Esther.
"Tachlit" - (f., pl. “Tachlitot”); aim, purpose, end; as in, “One of the “tachlitot,” or purposes, of studying the Torah, is to make a person proficient in the performance of the “Mitzvot,” the Commands, of the Torah.
Another current connotation of the word is that Orthodox boys and girls will tend not to “go out” together for casual friendship, but rather only for “tachlit,” for the serious purpose of exploring the possibility of marriage.
HaMishpacha" - "family purity;" laws regarding Sexual Discipline in
Marriage. In marital law, immersion of the wife in a Mikvah
is a vital component. These laws are based on the verse: "You shall not
come near a woman, while she is impure by her uncleanness, to uncover her
nakedness" (Lev. 18:19).
paragraphs from "To Be a Jew," by Rabbi Chaim HaLevy Donin,
published by Basic Books, N.Y., 1972:
full seven day period from the onset of the monthly menstrual period, the
Torah prohibits all sexual relations between husband and wife. The technical
term for the state in which the wife is in during the menstrual period is
called "niddah" (literal meaning: to
be removed or separated)."
Rabbinic edict, the Talmud extended this period of separation (niddah) to
"seven clean days" following the menstrual period. Since the
menstrual period lasts about five days for the average woman, the total
period of separation that is in force each month is about twelve days."
remains in the state of 'niddah' until she has immersed herself in a ritual
body of water ('mikvah'). This immersion is the ritual act that divides the
two periods of time - the period of separation when marital relations are
forbidden and the period of union when such relations are not only
permissible but regarded as essential to physical and mental health."
"It is the
responsibility of the wife to note carefully the day on which she last saw
blood and to count the seven "clean" days that follow, so that her
visit to the mikvah is neither too soon nor unnecessarily delayed."
"Talmud" - Repository of "Oral Law" of Judaism; consists of Mishnah and Gemara. There exist two versions: the Babylonian, or "Bavli" (this is the most frequently used version) and the Jerusalem, or "Yerushalmi." It is similar to an encyclopaedia, but with by no means as strict a structure. It consists of sixty three "Masechtot," or volumes, such as "Berachot," or "Blessings and Prayers," and "Sanhedrin," or "The Jewish Supreme Court," etc. It was written/compiled by Rav Ashi and his colleagues ca. 500 C.E., preserving generations of analysis and discussion by "Amoraim" of the more concise Mishnah, which contains the discussions of the "Tannaim". It also contains extra-legal and anecdotal material relating to all aspects of life. It is similar, in breadth and organization and random-access type memory organization, to the Internet and world-wide web, but is far deeper and qualitatively not comparable. It is referred to as the "Sea of the Talmud."
"Talmud Bavli" - the Babylonian Talmud, as opposed to the "Talmud Yerushalmi", the Jerusalem Talmud; it is the version that is used more. This version of the Talmud was compiled in Babylonia; see Talmud
"Talmud Yerushalmi" - the Jerusalem Talmud, as opposed to the "Talmud Bavli," the Babylonian Talmud. It is the version less used. This version of the Talmud was compiled in "Eretz Yisrael," the Land of Israel; see Talmud.
"TANAKH" - see here.nna" - (Aramaic; pl. Tannaim) - Scholar of the Mishnah; for example, Rabbi Meir or Rabbi Akiva.
"Tanya" - the Kabbalistic magnum opus of the "Alter Rebbe," the first "Rebbe" of the Lubavitch Chassidic Movement.
"Techiyat HaMetim" - see here
"Tefach" - (pl. "tefachim"); a unit of length, approximately equal to eight centimeters, or 3.2 inches. An example of its use is in connection with the "Sukkah," where the minimum height is ten "tefachim," or 80 cm., corresponding to about 32 inches.
"Tefilah" - (pl. "Tefilot") ; Jewish Prayer. It has existed from ancient times in Jewish Life, but has taken on greater meaning with the destruction of the Temple, for we now say, "Let our prayers replace our sacrifices." Founded on the premise that finite human beings can communicate with the infinite Holy One, Blessed Be He.
- (f.); an untranslatable term, translated as "phylacteries," a
"ritual object" that is a combination of two components: "Tefilin
shel Yad", Tefilin worn on the Arm, or Hand and Tefilin shel
Rosh, Tefilin worn on the Head.
A Jewish boy begins to
wear "Tefilin" when he becomes "Bar
Mitzvah." Both the "shel Yad" and the "shel
Rosh" consist of black leather boxes, each containing the four
Scriptural passages that command the observance of this Command.
The "Tefilin shel Yad" is set on the arm, opposite the heart, and the "Tefilin shel Rosh" is set upon the head, opposite the brain, to convey the idea that the feelings of one's heart and the thoughts of one's mind are all placed in the service of G-d.
"Tehilim" - the Book of Psalms, one of the Books of the "TANAKH," or the Bible. It is a collection of songs of praise to the Creator, songs that arise from the soul of a person at different stages and in different situations in life. The keynote of "Tehilim" is intense spirituality, and its greatness is recognized by the Jewish as well as the Gentile Communities.
The principal author was King David, known as the "sweet singer of Israel." But ten other "distinguished" authors also contributed one more of the 150 chapters. They are "Adam HaRishon" (First Man), Malkitzedek (King of Jerusalem in time of Avraham), Avraham, Moshe, Heyman (not to be confused with the evil Haman of Purim notoriety), Yeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korach.
Ten Commandments - See "Aseret HaDibrot"
Ten Plagues - See "Eser Makot"
Ten Utterances - See "Aseret HaDibrot"
"Teshuvah" - Repentance, or return to G-d or the G-dly way of life; modifying one's behavior by the following four steps: stopping the sinful behavior, confession before G-d, regret over past actions, and commitment to changed behavior in the future. If done out of fear of Divine punishment, Teshuvah turns past deliberate sins into "accidental" sins; if done out of love of G-d, Teshuvah has the power to transform deliberate sins into "good deeds."
The Ten Days of Repentance - See Aseret Y'mei Teshuvah
The "Three Weeks" - the twenty-one day period beginning with Shivah Asar B'Tammuz and climaxing with Tisha B'Av. This period is also known as the period of "Bein HaMetzarim," or "Between the Straits," a metaphor describing the downfall of Yerushalayim, based on the verse in Megilat Eicha (1:3) "All her enemies caught her between the straits."
"This World" - see "Olam HaZeh"
Thursday - "Yom Chamishi" - the fifth day of the week; this has the same Hebrew equivalent as the Fifth Day of Creation because, according to Jewish Tradition, that "Day" was Thursday
"Tisha B'Av" - Saddest Day on the Hebrew Calendar, marked by evening-to-evening fast, recitation of Megilat Eichah and special prayers, called "Kinot," describing the destruction of Yerushalayim and of the Temple, and of other tragedies which have befallen the Jewish People over its long Exile till our own time.
"Torah" - see Torah
"Torah min HaShamayim" - (f.); the belief, the claim and the idea that the Torah was given in its entirety by HaShem to the Jewish People, on Mt. Sinai and during their forty year sojourn through the desert, as recorded in the Bible."Treif" - a colloquialism, meaning "not Kosher," based on one of the categories of non-Kosher meat, "Treifah," meaning "torn"
Tuesday - "Yom Shelishi" - the third day of the week; this has the same Hebrew equivalent as the Third Day of Creation because, according to Jewish Tradition, that "Day" was Tuesday
"Tzaddik" - (pl. "Tzadikkim"); a righteous man (for the female equivalent, see "Tzidkanit") - based on the Hebrew word "Tzedek," or Justice. The Jewish hero is not the swashbuckling warrior, but rather the "Tzaddik," the "mighty warrior" who conquers his "evil inclinations," towards pride, power and oppression, and practices righteousness and humility, and who is, like G-d, always on "the side of the oppressed." ("Kohelet," or Ecclesiastes 3:15) Examples were the three "Avot," the forefathers of the Jewish People, Avraham, Yitzchak and Yaakov, who exemplified what a person can be.
"Tzarot" - (f., s. "Tzarah"); Troubles or Misfortunes. For example, "Yaakov Avinu," Jacob our forefather, suffered many "tzarot," troubles, in his life, but also gave many blessings to his sons and to the world. Also a Yiddishism, as "Tzuros" or 'Tzarois," or some other variant, but all based on the Hebrew word cited above.
"Tzedakah" - (f. pl "Tzidkot"); charity; helping one who is less fortunate than oneself; from the root "Tzedek," meaning "Justice" or "Righteousness." The concept of "Justice" applies because all wealth is G-d's and it is He Who allocates it, not necessarily on the basis of any rationale known to us. Therefore, the fact that one has more than the other fellow says not much about who deserved it more. In any case, it is a higher form of "Tzedakah" to give it anonymously than if the recipient knows the identity of the giver. And it is a still higher level, according to the Talmud and quoted by the RAMBAM, when one helps the other person help himself, as is the case when he helps him find a job.
"Tzidkanit" - (pl. "Tzidkaniyot"); a righteous woman (for the male equivalent, see "Tzaddik;" same definition and comments apply here). Examples are the "Imahot," the four "mothers" of the Jewish People: Sarah, Rivkah, Rachel and Leah. (There were four "mothers" and only three "fathers," because Yaakov had two wives, Rachel and Leah.)
"Tzedukim" - the deviationist sect which believed in the absolutely literal interpretation of the Torah. Therefore, in the expression "Mimochorat HaShabbat," the Shabbat referred to is "Shabbat Breishit;" the regular weekly Shabbat, implying that Sefirat HaOmer would always begin on Sunday and end on the Fiftieth Day; thus, Shavuot would always fall on a Sunday.
"Tzom" - Day of Fasting; similar to Taanit
"Tzom Gedaliah" - The Day of Fasting instituted to commemorate the tragic assassination of Gedaliah ben Achikam, who had been appointed by the Babylonians to be the Governor of the Jews after the Destruction of the First Temple. After this, all independent authority was removed from the Jews.
"Va", "Ve", "oo" as in "too" - Different pronunciations of the Hebrew letter "vav" when it is used as the "Vav HaChibbur," the "Combining, or Adding, or Connecting Vav;" simply, "and;" as in "VaHashem Pakad et Sarah," "And Hashem remembered Sarah," (Bereshit 21:1) and "VeYisrael ahav et Yosef mikol banav," "And Yisrael loved Joseph more than all his brothers" (Bereshit 37:3)
"Vadi" - "Wadi" (Arabic); "bone-dry," generally narrow river bed in the desert, which occasionally flash-floods at times of rare heavy rain; as in "BaVadi, lifeamim rechokot, yesh shitafon!" "In the Wadi, at rare intervals, there is a flash-flood."
"Vayikra" - (English: Leviticus); the third of the Books of the Pentateuch, or the "Chumash," or the Five Books of Moses. This Book is also called "Torat Kohanim," the "Law of the Priests," because it deals with matters relating to the Kohen and Levi "classes;" mainly relating to the Temple, such as Sacrifices of various kinds, and ritual cleanness and uncleanness.
Vilna Gaon - Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman (1720-1797); Greatest Talmudic Scholar of his day; but, in addition to Talmud, he excelled in all aspects of Torah study, including Kabbalah. Known for fierce opposition to Chassidut, which was initiated in 1736 by the Baal Shem Tov. He and his followers in this anti-Chassidic Movement were known as "Mitnagdim," or opponents. Their opposition was based on the beliefs, vigorously denied by Chassidic leaders, that Chassidut took liberties with the Oral Law, that it substituted emotion for intellect in the Study of Torah, that its form of prayer departed too far from the traditional form of prayer, etc.
Wednesday - "Yom Revii" - the fourth day of the week; this has the same Hebrew equivalent as the Fourth Day of Creation because, according to Jewish Tradition, that "Day" was Wednesday.
Willow - see "Aravah"
"World-to-Come" - see "Olam HaBa"
Written Law - Basic covenantal agreement between G-d and the Jewish People, embodied in the Five Books of Moses, containing 613 Commandments, 248 "positive" and 365 "negative." The relationship of the "Written" to the "Oral" Law is that of "Basic Principles" to the "Analysis and Clarification of the Principles;" somewhat analogous to the relationship between the U.S. Constitution and Books and classes in constitutional Law. The basic idea giving authority to this Law is the principle of "Torah min HaShamayim," that the Torah (in the sense of both the "written" and the "oral" forms) was given by G-d to Man for his creative study and application to all realms of life.